I used topo maps and my Silva compass. I also like Dallan's idea of using Google Earth. Must look at that. Print out topo pics.
Learnt to navigate properly when I was in the Army. The best instructor I had was an aboriginal guy who was an absolute wizard in the scrub. He would look at the map, lift his head and look at the sky and all around him, put the map and compass in his pocket and move off......even those keeping a close eye on their map and compass were astounded at his accuracy in navigating.
I have been geographically embarrassed on a couple of occasions, but it was always due to my stupidity in not following the map and compass and thinking that I knew what I was doing.
Learnt the hard way!!
Have thought about buying a GPS, but they are not real high on my "must have" list because of their cost and other priorities. There are places though that a GPS is pretty well useless. Some years back, again in the Army, we were doing an "activity" in a jungle/rainforest area. We had the latest (at the time) all singin' all dancin' military GPS that we were using for the first time in this scenario...anyway, as the jungle got thicker we realised that the GPS was "in trouble"...it couldn't pick up the satellites through the canopy. We had the option of climbing this bloody great "yarma" (read mountain!) to try to get a signal or back tracking to our last signal point. Luckily one of the guys didn't trust new technology and had his trusty old prismatic compass and topo map with him.....it worked a treat. He had been following our progress and knew exactly where we were all the time! Nobody just thought to ask him until it became obvious we didn't know our position.
Electronics can and will let you down
...remember Murphy's Law. By all means use a GPS, but NEVER lose site of or touch with the basics. If you know how to use a compass and topo map, and practice regularly, you should not get lost, or at least be too far out. Not only that but getting from Point A to Point B via a number of different points using a map and compass is very satisfying.